Classification of Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

Classification of Solid Waste Management

Classification of Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Government of India

The solid waste can be classified as per the Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Government of India publication as follows:

 (i) Domestic/Residential waste: This type of waste is originated from single or multifamily household units. These wastes are generated from the household activities  such  as  cooking  (ashes)  cleaning  (dust)  repairs  (residues),  hobbies (unuseables), redecoration, empty containers, used packets, old clothes, books,papers,  broken  glass,  plastic  items,  broken  and  useless  furniture.

(ii) Municipal waste:  Municipal waste includes waste resulting from municipal activities and services such as street sweepings, dead animals, market waste and abandoned vehicles.Generally,  this  term ‘Municipal  Waste’  is  used  in  a  wider sense to incorporate domestic wastes, institutional wastes and commercial wastes.

(iii) Commercial waste:  This  category  includes  solid  wastes  that  originate  in offices, wholesale and retail markets, restaurants, hotels, warehouses (godowns) and  other  commercial  establishments.

(iv) Institutional waste: These are those wastes generated from institutions such as schools, colleges, universities,  hospitals  and  research  institutes.  Some of these wastes (like hospitals) may be hazardous  (more  bad,  offensive,  strong,disease producing)  waste.

(v) Garbage:  Garbage  is  the  term  applied  to  animal  and  vegetable  wastes  generated  from  the  handling,  storage,  sale,  preparation,  cooking  and  serving  of food.  Such  wastes  contain  putrescible  (easily  and  quickly  biodegraded  with bad smell) organic matter. This attracts rats, flies, mosquito and other vermin,that  is  why  it  requires  immediate  attention.

(vi) Rubbish: It is a general term applied to solid wastes originating in households,commercial  establishments  and  institutions  excluding  garbage  and  ashes.

(vii)Ashes: These are the residues from the burning of wood, coal, charcoal, coke and  other  combustible  matter  for  cooking  and  heating  in  houses  institutions and  small  industries.  When  produced  in  large  quantities  in  thermal  power plants  (fly  ash)  they  are  known  as  industrial  wastes.  Ashes consists  of  fine powdery residue, cinders and clinkers often mixed with small pieces of metal and  glass.

(viii)Bulky waste:  Bulky  wastes  are  large  household  wastes  that  cannot  be accomodated in the normal storage containers of the household and thus they require special collection. Actually in India there is hardly any waste collected in  this  category  as  it  is  sold  to  the  kabaries.

(ix)Street sweepings:  The  waste  collected  from  streets,  walkways,  parks  etc.  is known as street sweepings. In developing countries like our country manual street sweeping is done and it makes the largest portion of the municipal solid waste  as  we  are  in  a  habit  of  throwing  everything  on  the  streets.  It  includes mainly  dust,  dirt,  plastic  bags  (thin),  dry  leaves,  useless  papers,  cardboard, rags,  tyres,  vegetable  matter  etc.  In  our  country  most  of  the  usable  portion of  the  waste  like  rags,  paper,  thick  plastic  bags,  plastic  utensils,  any  form  of metal is collected by the rag pickers. The organic matter including the paper and  even  plastic  sheets  is  consumed  by  cows  and  other  stray  animals.  Only in  big  cities  or  the  developed  countries  they  form  the  part  of  waste.  That  is why the calorific value of Indian solid waste is far less in comparison to the other  countries.

(x) Dead animals: This term includes the dead animals that die naturally or by accidents on roads. It does not include the animal parts from slaughter houses which are regarded as industrial waste. There are two types of dead animals,large  and  small.  The  smaller  ones  like  dogs  cats  rabbits,  rats  etc.,  are  either consumed by the other animals or can be easily lifted and disposed. The large ones like cows, horses, camels etc. require special and immediate attention as traffic  is  affected  and  they  emit  foul  smell.

(xi)Construction  and  demolition  waste: These are the wastes generated by the residue  of  the  construction,  refurnishment,  repair  and  demolition  of  houses, commercial  buildings  and  other  structures.  Generally, the  demolition  waste is  used  by  the  contractors  in  filling  low  lying  areas  and  the  plinth  filling  of new  houses  and  nothing  is  left  on  the  sites.  Even  then  some  small  quantity of  sand,  stone  or  concrete  may  be  left.

(xii)Industrial wastes: The  discarded  solid  material  of  manufacturing  processes and  industrial  operations  comes  in  this  category.  There  is  a  vast  range  of substances that are unique for each industry so they are considered separately from  municipal  wastes.

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(xiii)Hazardous waste:  Hazardous waste  is  defined  as  wastes  of  industrial,instutional  or  consumer  origin  that,  because  of  their  physical,  chemical  or biological  characteristics  are  potentially  dangerous  to  human  beings  and  the environment. In some cases the active agents may be liquid or gaseous, they are  classified  as  solid  waste  because  they  are  confined  in  solid  containers.

Typical  examples  are  solvents,  paints,  and  pesticides  whose  spent  (empty) containers  are  frequently  mixed  with  municipal  wastes  and  become  part  of the  urban  waste  stream.  Certain  hazardous  waste  can  explode  in  the  incinerators  (controlled  large  kilns)  and  cause  fires  at  land  fill  sites.  Others  such as  pathological  (disease  producing)  wastes  from  hospitals  and  radioactive waste,  require  special  handling  at  all  times.  Proper  management  practice should  ensure  that  hazardous  wastes  are  collected,  stored,  transported  and disposed  off  seprately,  preferably  after  treatment  to  make  them  harmless.

(xiv)Sewage  waste:  The  solid  by-products  of  sewage  treatment  are  classified  as sewage  wastes.  They  are  mostly  organic  and  produced  from  the  treatment of  organic  sludge  from  both  the  raw  and  treated  sewage.  The  inorganic fraction  of  raw  sewage  such  as  grit  is  separated  at  the  preliminary  stage  of treatment, but because it entrains putrescible organic matter that may contain disease producing bacteria (pathogens), must be buried or disposed off quickly.

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Above all Municipal Solid Waste Management to be classified.