Foundation Structural Design

Foundation is a part of structure which interfaces the superstructure to the adjacent zone of soil or rock below it.
The purpose of having a foundation is to transfer the superstructure loads to the underlying soil or rock without overstressing the soil or rock.

Placing the footing at a sufficient depth that the soil beneath the footing is confined. If silt or sand is not confined, it will roll out from the footing perimeter with a loss of density and bearing capacity. Wind and water may erode sand or silt from beneath a footing that is too near the ground surface.

The three basic requirements of a satisfactory foundation.

  • The foundation must be properly located with respect to any future influences which could affect its performances.
  • The foundation, including the soil below it,must be stable and safe from failure.
  • The foundation must not settle sufficiently to damage the structure.

Footing Depth and Spacing

  • The frost line
  • Zones of high volume change due to moisture fluctuations
  • Topsoil or organic material
  • Peat and muck
  • Unconsolidated material such as abandoned (or closed) garbage dumps and similar filled in areas.

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