Civil Engineer

Components of a Building

COMPONENTS OF A BUILDING FOUNDATION: – It is  direct contact with ground and transmitted all the dead, live and other loads to the soil on which the structure rests.

  1. PLINTH: – The portion of a building and the top of the floor immediately above the ground is known as plinth. The level of the surrounding ground is known as formation level of the ground floor of the building is known as plinth level.
  2. WALLS: – Walls are provided to enclose or divide the floor space n desired pattern in addition wall provided privacy security and give protection against sun, rain, cold and other undesired effect of the weather.
  3. COLUMN: – A column may be defined as an isolated load bearing member, the width of which is neither less than its thickness. It carries the axially compressive load.
  4. FLOORS: – Floors are flat supporting elements of a building. They divided a building into different levels. There by creating more accommodation on a given plot of land. The basic purpose of a floor is to provide a firm and other items like stores, furniture, equipment etc.
  5. DOORS, WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS: – A door may be defined as a barrier secured in an opening left in a wall to provide usual means of access to a building, room or passage. Windows and ventilators are provided for sun light, fresh air and ventilation purposes.
  6. ROOF: – It is the uppermost component of a building and its function is to cover the space below it of a room and protect it from rain, snow, sun, wind etc.
  7. BUILDING FINISHES: – A building is considered incomplete till such time the surface of its components is given appropriate treatment.


Building finishes include items like plastering, painting, pointing, white / colour washing, varnishes and distempering etc.


Following are the materials used for the construction of a building.
1. Bricks.
2. Sand.
3. Cement.
4. Stone.
5. Coarse Aggregate.
6. Fine Aggregate.
7. Timber.
8. Metal.
9. Floor Tiles.
10. Roof Tiles.
11. Reinforcement.
12. Plastic Materials.
13. Doors & Windows.
14. Asphalt Bitumen.
15. Coloring Material.
16. White Cement.
17. Paints & Varnishes.
18. Brick Ballast.
19. Sanitary Materials.
20. Water.
21. Finishing Tiles. Etc.

Read More Super Structure Building Construction

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