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Isolated Footing Design and Calculation

Isolated Footing Design and Calculation

Isolated Footing Design distribute the load transmitted from the column into the soil.Size of footing depend on the type of soil on which the building rests.

Safe Bearing Capacity(S.B.C)

The Safe Bearing Capacity(S.B.C) of soils like clay is very less.

SBC of soft / hard rock is very high.

In absence of Soil Test Result SBC is generally assumed as follows

Clay = 100 KN/m2

Coarse Sand = 150 KN/m2

Hard gravel = 250 KN/m2

Soft Disintegrated Rock = 300 KN/m2

However it is highly recommended to conduct soil test by soil experts for abopting the SBC and type of foundation before execution.

Footing Design

Area of footing A

= {(1.1 x Load on column)/(SBC of soil)

= {(1.1 x 800)/(100)} = 8.80m2

Size of square footing in plan = √A =√8.80 = 3m x 3m

Thickness of footing and reinforcement are arrived by designing the footing slab as cantilever for the upward pressure exerted by the soil.However ready reckoners can be made use of.

Design of Footing

Depth of footing

Depth footing can be calculated based on bending moment one way shear and punching shear consideration.However depth of footing can be calculated using the following approximate method.

Net soil pressure in Kn/M2


(SBC of Soil)



(for Block Footing)



(for sloped and stepped footing)

50 B/7 1.2(B/7)
100 B/5.5 1.2(B/5.5)
150 B/5 1.2(B/5)
200 B/4.5 1.2(B/4.5)
250 B/4 1.2(B/4)
300 B/3.5 1.2(B/3.5)

Where B = size of footing in “m” D = Total Thickness of footing


Minimum Dia of bar : 10 ø RTS

Thumb rule

Up to 2m width : use 10 ø RTS

Above 2m up to 3m width : use 12 ø RTS

Above 3m width : use 16 ø RTS

Minimum spacing of bar : 100 mm

Maximum spacing of bar : 200 mm

Ready Reckoner for footing

Combined Footing Design

Design of Footings

Note: D = Total Thickness of footing near face of column


Isolated Footing Design m20

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